If you read the linked page (Web Components), you'll notice many similarities to LWC. This is because LWC is based on the standards. Salesforce and other vendors originally helped create the standard to begin with.
To give a different comparison, Aura is like software 3D graphics rendering, while Web Components is like hardware 3D graphics rendering. Hardware always performs better than software for the same algorithm. As stated before, this is the main difference between Aura and LWC; the former must be rendered entirely in software, while the latter is rendered mostly by the browser.
Finally, as an aside, newer frameworks are also using Web Components. It's not specific to just Salesforce. They implement them using different syntax structures, but the main benefits of moving to Web Components are improved encapsulation (and thus, security), as well as improved performance. The "traditional web application" model is slowly falling out of favor in exchange for a faster, more secure World Wide Web.