You need to fix the file URL and construct it as follows to get the file preview:
Then use NavigationMixin with standard__webPage to redirect to the file URL.
This answer provides some additional info with link to ...
This is covered in the ContentVersion documentation as by design:
Note: Depending on how files are shared, queries on ContentDocument
and ContentVersion without specifying an ID won't return all files a
user has access to. For example, if a user only has access to a file
because they have access to a record that the file is shared with, the
file won't be ...