This approach is not "from the [Setup] UI"...
The SFDX format for projects - where the metadata is retrieved/deployed or pulled/pushed to an org - benefits from having individual files for each field. For example:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
My favorite methods are Schema Builder and Cloud Toolkit.
Both of them are good for high volume. You can get to Schema Builder from setup. You can drag new fields or objects onto the schema.
Cloud Toolkit has Field Creator, which lets you create several fields at the same time, object by object. The objects do need to exist for Field Creator to work.
Should they be able to edit the record at all? If not, you could simply remove the edit ability for that object for that one profile.
Otherwise, a validation rule should work well. You can specify the conditions you'd like:
anytime the Owner field changes
it's the profile you're stopping
In actual, correct syntax