First up, I acknowledge that your question is about using the REST API. However, I couldn't find the equivalent in the REST API to what the SOAP API can do.
If you look at the equivalent request in the SOAP Partner API, executeListView, you will see that it takes a ExecuteListViewRequest parameter.
This includes a couple of interesting properties:
Name Type Description
limit int The maximum number of records to return. Default: 25
offset int The number of records to skip. Default: 0
So, the limit defaults to 25 and the offset to 0. I ran some tests against the Partner API. If I set the limit to 50 I got 50 records back rather than the default 25. I assume I could use the offset to page through the total results.
I'm not sure how you can do this in the REST API List View Results.