What is the way to use localized labels from Custom Labels or from field config inside lightning components?
In VF it was possible like:
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This feature has now been added as of Summer '15
In Lightning Components, these are called global value providers. Currently there are only a few, including $Locale, and $Browser.
Some of the very useful global variables that exist in Visualforce such as the two you state and others like $User, $Profile, and others have not yet been implemented in Lightning Component Framework.