What is the way to use localized labels from Custom Labels or from field config inside lightning components?
In VF it was possible like:
This feature has now been added as of Summer '15
In Lightning Components, these are called global value providers. Currently there are only a few, including $Locale, and $Browser.
Some of the very useful global variables that exist in Visualforce such as the two you state and others like $User, $Profile, and others have not yet been implemented in Lightning Component Framework.
I have the same requirement, what I did mayn't be the optimum solution; but it does suffice my requirement.
I had created a CustomLabel csv file and uploaded as a Static Resource.
Hope this will help you too.