Can some one please let me know how to obtain the following information for a user programmatically or via API: :
We need to do this through a secure connection. Does Salesforce provide SSL via the main domain.
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Token, ClientId and ClientId lead to the assumption that you are referring to a connected app.
ClientId and Secret cant be retrieved programmatically. They must rather be stored locally in a configuration element such as custom setting or variable and be passed as part of the OAuth flow, which is described in great detail here:
which will give you the access token and refresh token.