Based on my tests apparently the answer is an unexpected no, but when a time-based WF executes do record-triggered Flows fire in cascade? For example, when a WF rule on Event executes a time-dependent action to update the Event itself do Flows that trigger on update of Event fire?
The "re-evaluate workflows" option was selected on the time-based Field Update action in my test.
See the debug logs as proof of my experiment:
If I update the record manually the corresponding Flows get fired and they show up in the debug logs: