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I'm doing a simple HTTP callout in Apex using a Named Credential with Username/Password authentication, but I'm getting a System.CalloutException: The URI is invalid.

What could be the cause here?

    String url = 'callout:NamedCredential:4326/api/Sessions.json?file=D:\Sample-Files\United Kingdom.swd';
    Http h = new Http();

    HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest();
    req.setEndpoint(url);
    req.setMethod('POST');
    req.setHeader('Content-Length', '0');
    req.setTimeout(120000);

    HttpResponse response;
    response = h.send(req);

I have tried using EncodingUtil.urlEncode on the URL but that doesn't help.

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    As per the documentation the URL form is "callout:My_Named_Credential/some_path". You have a second colon which looks out of place...? – Phil W Apr 19 at 16:44
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    Agreed with @PhilW. If you are trying to specify a port number and path that should be done in the named credential record. You are able to add query parameters to the endpoint after the "?" character. – Zach Apr 19 at 16:58
  • I have just tried that and I still get "URI is invalid" unfortunately :( – fred Apr 19 at 17:03
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You need to escape backslashes in source code, and URI encode unsafe characters in the URI.

String url = 'callout:NamedCredential/api/Sessions.json?file='+EncodingUtil.urlEncode('D:\\Sample-Files\\United Kingdom.swd','utf-8');

As noted in the comments, you should also put the port in the named credential directly.

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