The relevant documentation reference is the ISVforce Guide, under Editing Components and Attributes After Installation. It covers most metadata types and explains the manageability rules that will be applied after you ship a component in a managed-released package.
As a general rule, any attribute called out as "Developer Editable" can be changed by you and shipped in an upgrade to subscriber orgs. Anything called out as "Subscriber and Developer Editable" can be changed by you, but can also be changed by subscribers in their own org, and therefore cannot be shipped in an upgrade by you.
Shipping a managed package is a kind of social contract (enforced by the platform) between you and your subscribers. The platform will prevent you from making a wide variety of changes that could potentially break subscribers' orgs. As a consequence, you should generally not upload a managed-released package until you are sure you are ready to ship.
If you aren't sure what you are doing, and are not shipping to customers, use a beta package, but note that you should almost never install a beta package in a persistent org. Beta packages cannot be upgraded, so to upgrade an org from a beta to a later version, you must completely uninstall the beta package. Beta packages should only be installed in scratch orgs and in sandboxes you don't mind refreshing.