In typical java environment, after code quality test, we package code and push it to artifactory as snapshot, and then bring it to desired environment (dev/test/pre-prod) and deploy same. As I’m new to this SF platform, I’m curious to know and utilize artifactory in CI/CD pipeline but not sure at what stage of build process we can leverage this tool when we are into salesforce org base development model. Can inputs from this community is highly appreciable.
Salesforce development does not produce externalizable artifacts other than source code. You can, of course, use any applicable tool you wish to managed releases of your source code, but there's no packaging or compilation process you can apply off-platform.
You may choose to practice the Package Development Model to produce on-platform packages that can be installed in different Salesforce orgs, but those packages exist purely on the platform and cannot be stored externally. They are not analogous in many ways to packages in Java or other stacks. Note however that many Salesforce customers do not practice package-based development and never package their code; this is referred to as the Org Development Model.
The artifacts typically produced by a package development process are source code stored in version control, which of course you may associated with tags and releases in a system like GitHub, and the Ids of package versions that may be installed in Salesforce orgs.
Org development hopefully, in a best-practices context, is done in source control, and a well-managed development lifecycle may use tags, releases, or other artifacts to track specific deployments, but that's all dictated by the process of the org and again doesn't involve any compilation or packaging of the code as such.