I would like to know how to copy a certain salesforce organization (including all of its data and settings) to another already existing or newly created salesforce organization.
I had to do this in the past year and for me the first step is scheduling the Data Export and understanding the relationships between objects in the old org:
Using a tool like Eclipse you can move all the metadata over first (objects, custom fields, etc.).
Finally, using the standard Salesforce dataloader I moved the data. There are a lot of options now for data import besides dataloader (including the updated Salesforce data import wizard tool, dataloader.io, jitterbit dataloader, etc) My only gotcha w/ dataloader was learning how to import files and attachments which I managed w/ the help of numerous online articles. I had to lower the default batch size of 200 to 10 or less to get below Salesforce's API file size limit for attachments since each file in the batch counts toward that limit.
Other gotchas are things like setting owner ids to match users ids in the new org (if they exist) or updating existing profiles to see all the new objects and their fields. I also imported the old salesforce record id's to a custom field for each record so if I ever needed to cross-reference and look something up in the old org from the exports, it would be much easier. Also, you will lose history data unless you create some object to hold the old field history and relate it to the object. Practice uploading in a sandbox and the gotchas will all surface really quickly w/o jeopardizing your production instance.