I've came across several cases where these callbacks did not fire.
- Standard action override (new). Overridden with LAC component containing LWC component. Then navigation back on list view and on second navigation to the component just disconnectedCallback was triggered and component have not showed up.
- Quick Action with LAC navigating (using navigationMixin) to lightning:isUrlAddressable component containing LWC component. Then navigating to even different record, on second redirect to that component, not connected nor disconnected callbacks were triggered and component in old state was displayed
- VF Page on List View, storing selected Ids, then redirecting to URL of the lightning:isUrlAddressable LAC component which contains LWC component(s). Then navigating to the list view and on second redirect not connected nor disconnected callbacks were triggered and component in old state was displayed.
- and possibly few more cases on edit action and so on.
NOTE: for any of them renderedCallback and constructor have not run either on second display.