Is it possible to change the recently viewed list view displayed fields based on profiles?
I want Profile X to see the default recently viewed fields.
I Profile Y to see a different set of fields on the same recently viewed list view.
I believe this is not possible at this moment. The Recently viewed List View is controlled by the Object's Search Layout which only can contain 1 version for that object. In classic the controller was the Tab element:
There are several ideas is in the IdeaExchange around Recently Viewed List limitations: https://success.salesforce.com/ideaview?id=08730000000BpRoAAK https://success.salesforce.com/ideaView?id=0873A000000CSLkQAO
Hope I had a better answer for you.