The SMSJobID in the send log is a GUID, not the normal numerical identifier like the SendJobID that is inside SMSMessageTracking DV.
I have tried looking to see if there is some pattern in the GUID that it included the numeric JobID - but no luck. I have compared the GUID across all other data points in the DV and no luck either.
Then I started adding in any personalization strings I could think of (hoping to find something undocumented) and nothing worked. jobid always returns 0 - which is kinda expected as it says in the description it is only for email.
I feel like I am in crazy town that the Job ID for the same job would not only be different values, but also completely different data types.
The closest I have found so far is to match on MobileNumber, SubscriberID and a soft match on sendDate. Not exactly reliable, especially if there are multiple sends at the same time (e.g. Transactional messaging).