Yes you can, but you have to first ask support to turn it on:
Contact your account representative to have this feature enabled for
your account. You must be familiar with AMPscript to send emails with
Here is the whole description: https://help.salesforce.com/articleView?id=mc_es_email_attachments.htm&type=5
You will need to use this AMPscript function in order to attach a file: AttachFile
Here's a nice example of this function used to attach a file from Content Builder from the ampscript.guide:
var @customerKey, @fileAlias
set @customerKey = "LoyaltyMembersCB"
set @fileAlias = "LoyaltyMembers_ContentBuilder.zip"
AttachFile("ContentBuilder", @customerKey, @fileAlias)