Do failed attempts to create unlocked packages count against an org's daily package version creation limit?
I'm not sure with the answer, but you can test it yourself. First run this command in terminal:
Note the current Package2VersionCreates Remaining integer.
Then try to create unlocked package with failed status and run the command again.
UPDATE: It also would be kind of you if you post your result here in comments to show others. It's better to see it yourself.