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I have a visualforce page controller class which has a soql in the beginning

select <fields> from <custom_object_A> where appnum = <fetched_from_vf_page_parameter>;

The controller class has lot of calculations after that soql. I am trying to create a test class. Since i want the test class to pass through various scenarios of the controller class, i will have to pass a lot of records to the custom_object_A.

I am wondering if i can use a csv file with records from the custom_object_A and upload as a static resource? I am not sure if i will have to insert the data in my custom_object_A in the test class or i can use the the static resource and loop through the rows?

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You can indeed. The functionality you're looking for is Test.loadData(). From that documentation, the steps to use it are

  1. Add the data in a .csv file.
  2. Create a static resource for this file.
  3. Call Test.loadData within your test method and passing it the sObject type token and the static resource name.

You can call Test.loadData() in your @isTest test method or your @testSetup initialization method. You won't need to write any inserts or touch the CSV content yourself.

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Tried the following on the case object and it worked. Thank you David!

Controller Class

public class caseextn { public case case1{get;set;} public caseextn (ApexPages.StandardController stdController) { string casenum= ApexPages.currentPage().getParameters().get('casenum'); system.debug('casenum' + casenum); try{ case1 = [Select ownerid,id from case where casenumber = :casenum]; System.debug('case values'+ case1 );

    }
    catch(exception e){
        system.debug('In ERROR No exception calculator record found for this application.');
        ApexPages.addmessage(new ApexPages.message(ApexPages.severity.ERROR,'No exception calculator record found for the application: ' + casenum+'.')); 
    }
} //constructor end

}

VFPage

Test Class

@isTest private class casetest {

private static testMethod void test() {
List caselst = Test.loadData(case.sObjectType, 'case'); system.debug('caselst '+caselst);
List caselst1 = (list)caselst;

 Test.StartTest();  

for (case case1 : caselst1){
PageReference pageRef = Page.caseitemsvfpage; // Add your VF page Name here
Test.setCurrentPage(pageRef);
system.debug('pageRef1 '+pageRef);
pageRef.getParameters().put('casenum', String.valueOf(case1.caseNumber)); 
ApexPages.StandardController sc = new ApexPages.StandardController(case1);
caseextn ece = new caseextn(sc);   
system.debug('pageRef3 '+pageRef);  
 }

Test.StopTest(); } }

case static resource file:

"CaseNumber","Subject","Status","Priority" "00001002","Seeking guidance on electrical wiring installation for GC5060","New","Low" "00001016","Maintenance guidelines for generator unclear","New","Low" "00001024","Design issue with mechanical rotor","New","Low"

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