First, try downgrading Node to version v8.12.0.
If that does not work, you can try the links from the
deasync Installation section of their README.
A deeper explanation...
Currently the Lightning Web Component compiler only has an async compile API, but Jest only supports synchronous transforms. Thus, for our Jest transformer to work we use
deasync to force the async compile API to be synchronous.
deasync provides it's own binaries for certain OS + Node version combinations. If the binaries are not found, it compiles some C++ code.
During this compilation is typically where people run into issues. Hopefully using an older version of Node will solve your issue and you won't have to worry about getting the other tools necessary for compilation, which is a bit more involved.
For a long term solution we hope to remove this dependency on the
deasync library, but will involve some work since Jest is very unlikely to support asynchronous transforms. See Jest issues #2711 and #5556.