You can utilize personalization strings and AMPScript inside of a Cloudpage no problem. The hardest part is passing the values along.
SFMC has included an AMPScript function to assist called CloudPagesURL() which will pass all the personalization strings and attributes attached to the subscriber into the Cloud Page. This would be used in the email like so
<a href="%%=RedirectTo(CloudPagesURL('1245'))=%%" >link</a>.
This will allow you to use your personalizaton strings like
%%emailaddr%% as well as any attributes or data extension columns same as you could in an email.
You can also manually pass variables inside of an URL parameter by adding a query string to the end of the url, like so
?myvar=myval is the string, placing a parameter of myvar to the value of myval. This can then be retrieved on the page using the RequestParameter() Ampscript function.
Finally you can also use Lookups and Retrieves on SF objects via AMPScript to pull values as well, same as you can inside of an email.