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I am not able to understand Aura:method attribute and how it helps in making asynchronous callbacks.. I went through this Link but was not able to understand its working.. Will be great help if anyone can provide docs for aura:method component and function type attribute in aura!? Thanks

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aura:method is called synchronously. The trick to an asynchronous return value is a callback, which is a Function:

<!-- c:auraMethod -->
<aura:component controller="SimpleServerSideController">
    <aura:method name="echo"
      description="Sample method with server-side call">
        <aura:attribute name="callback" type="Function" />
    </aura:method>

    <p>This component has an aura:method definition.</p>
</aura:component>

A Function is a normal JavaScript type that is a function.

var logMessage = function(param) { console.log(param); }

In this example, logMessage is a Function. You can do a number of interesting things with it:

logMessage("This is a message.")
logMessage.call(null, "This is another message.");
logMessage.apply(null, ["This is yet another message."]);

Also, if you want to formalize a reference with parameters:

var sayHelloWorld = logMessage.bind(null, "Hello World");
sayHelloWorld(); // outputs "Hello World"

The two links I included should answer any further questions you have.

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