Considering Salesforce Government Cloud is a partitioned instance running on dedicated resources (and also because it's for government needs), are governor limits more relaxed for these instances? Where could I find information related to the governor limits on Salesforce Government Cloud?
No, Governor limits on government cloud are not relaxed.
Salesforce Government Cloud: The Salesforce Government Cloud is a partitioned instance of Salesforce’s multi-tenant public cloud infrastructure, specifically for use by U.S federal, state, and local government customers, U.S. government contractors, and Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). The isolated production infrastructure supporting the Salesforce Government Cloud Customer Data ensures that the physical hardware is separate from hardware supporting other customers. While isolated, the underlying infrastructure supporting the Salesforce Government Cloud is the same trusted architecture model that supports Salesforce’s multi-tenant public cloud offering and over a billion customer transactions a day.