I'm having troubles adding a custom Publisher Action (PA) to the PA pop up window on my IPAD using Salesforce1 (accessed via the PLUS sign). I've created a new PA via the new 'Action' feature for the Leads object. I have successfully modified the page layout to clear the default PAs that were showing (except for Dropbox and Evernote - which is a different issue - no concern here). I have added my new PA to the layout but it does not show on the IPAD via SF1. Any suggestions?
Assuming that you are sure you're editing the correct publisher layout (since you said you managed to remove existing actions), this type of issue is most often due to record types.
Publisher actions are specific to individual record types, so if you create an action for a record type that your profile doesn't have access to, you will not see the action. The big sneaky one is the "Master" record type, because until recently it was the default, but if you have access to any other record type you can't also have access to Master.