What you are referring here is necessarily a Path component that you want to utilize it on your Community.
The answer to your question:
Can we achieve this using OOB functionality on Community same like below salesforce page?
is both Yes and No.
Yes because, you can achieve this functionality OOTB as long as your are using the standard Path component and that you have a supported Object. Refer to more on its documentation.
Use the Path component in Lightning communities on opportunity, lead, campaign, contract, order, and custom object detail pages to show various stages of a business process.
There's also a lightning:path (available with API v41.0 and is still in beta though) component available where you can customize your custom lightnings. This component also utilizes the Path metadata as setup for your object.
Displays a path driven by a picklist field and Path Setup metadata. This component requires API 41.0 and later.
A lightning:path component displays the progress of a process, which is based on the picklist field that's specified by Path Settings in Setup. The path is rendered as a horizontal bar with a chevron for each picklist item. The key fields and guidance for success are displayed below the path.
No because, you seem to be using Article in your case, and thus you cannot use the standard Path components here. So you have couple of options here which you can implement.
You can have a custom object to define the Path metadata and use it along with your use cases to display details for specific stages on your community uitlizing lightning:path component. This will allow to render the Path component while utilizing OOTB features and enabling you to handle further details.
Utilize SLDS Path process component to build a complete custom implementation. This approach will require much more writing of markups.
Ultimately it will depend on your design approach and how you build it, but you definitely have options here to get started in that direction.