Is there any way to get the Content Builder folder and subfolder structure? And also want fetch asset from these folders.
These will each need to be individual calls.
For example, you can get assets easily via any of the retrieve/get asset in the Content Builder REST API
For Category/SubCategory (folders) you will need to do an individual call on each folder.
For example (lets say you have the sub category (4 directories down) where the asset lives, but you want the breadcrumbs to the root folder. You would need to do 4 API calls.
/asset/v1/content/categories?$pagesize=20&$filter=Id eq 3916
and you would then collect the ParentId from that call and make another call on that down to the root folder. You can collect name from each of these calls as well to have a more user friendly breadcrumb path - I just would not recommend filtering the API call on name, as there could be duplicates.