I think you may have a misunderstanding what lightning and SLDS are...
The gaps mentioned in the other comments are here. They are closing with every release: https://help.salesforce.com/articleView?id=lightning_components_roadmap.htm.
You have two choices right now are to implement SLDS in your own JS/HTML (what you're attempting to do) and wrap them in a re-useable component. There are others who have done this: http://www.lightningstrike.io/
You can wait for the base components, implemented by Salesforce to be released.
I hope that makes sense, but the source you're talking about is exactly this: