Yes. Use the deploy command to push:
sfdx force:source:deploy -p "/PATH/TO/YOUR/COMPONENT"
Use the retrieve command to pull:
sfdx force:source:retrieve -p "/PATH/TO/YOUR/COMPONENT"
If the component doesn't exist on your local you have to get it via metadata, for example:
sfdx force:source:retrieve -m "ApexClass:YOURAPEXCLASS"
Note the name of the metadata is the API Name, not the filename. To get all files of a certain metadata type:
sfdx force:source:retrieve -m LightningComponentBundle
Although surrounding your path or metadata name with quotes is optional, you will have to include them if you have any spaces in the names.