We ran into the same issue and this seems to be a bug. We had to load an image in a visualforce image and since the static resource did not load the workaround we used was to use the base64 content of the image directly in the image tag like below
<img width="16" height="16" alt="star" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAQAMQAAORHHOVSKudfOulrSOp3WOyDZu6QdvCchPGolfO0o/XBs/fNwfjZ0frl3/zy7////wAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACH5BAkAABAALAAAAAAQABAAAAVVICSOZGlCQAosJ6mu7fiyZeKqNKToQGDsM8hBADgUXoGAiqhSvp5QAnQKGIgUhwFUYLCVDFCrKUE1lBavAViFIDlTImbKC5Gm2hB0SlBCBMQiB0UjIQA7" />
Another important point is even if the community is de-activated it will show a blank page if you directly access pages of community. Its a salesforce bug
check it out here in salesforce issues. this issue is applicable for Napili community template not sure of the other ones though.