You can use standard JS way -
Please note you have to make a property call from window object obligately (not just location.reload()) because Lightning LockerService treats the global namespace differently and the window object there is a special wrapper around original one.
Have tested it inside one of my Lightning components under Chrome and IE 11 - it works.
As an alternative (but not recommended), you can try the old Lightning way with refresh event:
documentation is here
But from my experience, it works smoothly not everywhere,
e.g. I encountered the next issue in one of the places:
Uncaught Action failed: one:recordHomeFlexipage$controller$refresh
[Cannot read property 'Qi' of null]
and there is no documentation entries for this event on API v43 and v44.