Welcome to SF.SE. The general approach to building a component like this would be to create a number of components that incrementally build the functionality needed for the final component. At a minimum, you'd want a "row" component, a "column" component, a table, and most likely a grid component plus a container to hold everything. You'll want to define attributes for rows and columns. You'd need a means of handling your data as an array to send it into each row and column.
I hope this helps you get started. In the future, when you post a question like this, please include any code you've written and where you're stuck. Questions posted without code typically get closed. Please take the time to visit the [Help] and read How do I ask a good question.