Is it possible to configure default list views like recently views to have pre configured columns based on user type (profile, group) or the only option is to restrict view visibility by creating custom list view? Also, I am talking here about Lightning experience
There is no out of the box way to do this. If you have to have it you could use formula fields and field level security.
Say you have an object and fields
Employee (name, salary, manager)
and two profiles
VP - Should see Name and Manager on list view, but have access to salary HR Manager - Should see Name and Salary on the list view but still have access to manager
You'd have to create formula fields and field level security
xSalary (only HR Managers) xManager (only Vps)
Then your list view would be
Name, xSalary, xManager
I don't recommend this, b/c it'd be a nightmare to manage and confusing for other admins in the future. If you do it, document heavily.