You can create a Visualforce page using the standard list controller, and define it as a list button.
Refer this link: Adding Custom List Buttons using Standard List Controllers
These display as expected in Lightning:
Don't forget the Custom Object must be Searchable in order to add your new button to the List View Search Layout.
You can then use Lightning for Visualforce (Lightning Out) to render a lightning component in your VF page if you're doing a primarily lightning component project.
Trailhead Module: Use Visualforce in Lightning Experience