I released a Managed Package version 1.1 and installed on both Developer Org D1 and Sandbox Org S1.
Later I added a new Lightning Component and Lightning Record Page to the Package and released a Major version 1.2.
I am able to upgrade D1 to 1.2 (and many other developer orgs).
But when I tried upgrading S1 from 1.1 to 1.2 it throwed me an error as below and installation failed:
(Customer_Object_Record_Page) Validation Errors While Saving
Record(s), Details: There were custom validation error(s) encountered
while saving the affected record(s). The first validation error
encountered was "We couldn't retrieve the design time component
information for component nmspc:AnotherLightningPage.".
I am not able to understand the message "We couldn't retrieve the design time component information for component X" and what is so different from Developer Org to Sandbox Org.
This is accepted as known issue by Salesforce and patch fix is scheduled for all the instances as listed here. As mentioned by sfdcfox the issue is specific to Summer 17 (Sandbox Org) and not happening on Spring 17 (Developer Org).