I found the following capability: Enhanced Link Capability, and I would like to create a chatter post that has all of its fields, an icon, record link, and title. It seems there is not much information on this object when I've tried to search for it, is it possible to use this capability?
Reviewing the documentation I can understand the confusion. Its actually describing a payload that can be returned from Salesforce when a link is enhanced by embed.ly. Salesforce uses embed.ly along with a whitelist of domains to create enhanced previews of the webpage that was linked to a Feed Element. As of this time we do not allow people to create their own enhanced link capabilities.
Here is a link to Salesforce documentation on Sites that generate a preview in posts