The answer to this question is No.
Metadata API allows user to deploy and retrieve org configuration. Salesforce would not allow a community user to Deploy metadata into your org or delete something which could break the production.
If you need List view access: A community users can access list view only which they have access individually or by group. If you are looking to provide access to all list views then you will need to give access of all those list views to that user.
If you want to read List view metadata: put some schedulable batch which would read the list view as administrator in a frequency and then store that information in a custom object which a community user can read.