Is there a way through which we can fetch deployment status and related deployed metadata components through same and other salesforce org?
If you perform a deploy using Metadata API, you should be able to get Deployment Status using method checkDeployStatus
The same stuff you can do if you just know the deployment id.
You need to pass second parameter as true to get related metadata.
Look for them in details.componentFailures and details.componentSuccesses
componentFailures DeployMessage One or more DeployMessage objects containing deployment errors for each component. componentSuccesses DeployMessage One or more DeployMessage objects containing successful deployment details for each component.