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I'm using the Messaging.SingleEmailMessage class to send an email (using a VF template), merging in some Case fields.

Where do you specify what record should be used for the merge fields in the template? In other words, how do I tell Apex what Case/Case ID to send to the template?

setTargetObjectId seems like it might be the method to use, and it's required if you're using a VF template - but it sounds like this has to be a Contact, Lead, or User - I also tried setting this to a flat Case ID and while there were no compile or runtime errors, the template didn't "receive" the Case ID.

Execute anonymous:

Messaging.SingleEmailMessage email = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage();
email.setToAddresses(new String[] { 'test@test.com' });
email.setTargetObjectId('00563000000WyiwAAC'); // attempting to use a Case ID here does not result in a compilation or runtime error
email.setTemplateId('00X63000000M2rbEAC');
email.saveAsActivity = false;
Messaging.SendEmailResult[] results = Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage[] { email });

Template:

<messaging:emailTemplate subject="Template 1"  relatedToType="Case">
<messaging:plainTextEmailBody >

Visualforce Email Template.
<c:ConsumerCommunicationTemplate caseIdAttribute="{!relatedTo.Id}"/>

</messaging:plainTextEmailBody>
</messaging:emailTemplate>

In the template, if I change the component markup to a flat Case ID like so:

<c:ConsumerCommunicationTemplate caseIdAttribute="00563000000WyiwAAC"/>

it works fine. This is the only reason I'm not sure it's an issue with the component and the order of instantiation of its constructor/getters/setters.

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Your friend here is the setWhatId(someCaseId) method as documented here in the Apex doc

This corresponds to the {!relatedTo.Id} merge field in the VF email template that you can pass into your custom VF component

<c:ConsumerCommunicationTemplate caseIdAttribute="{!relatedTo.Id}"/>

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