Note: I only have Console in my sandbox, so I may be making some assumptions.
When I update a Visualforce page or layout that is used in the console in my sandbox, my sandbox console users only see that new layout/page if they do a hard refresh (Ctrl+Shift+R) in their browsers. Even then, that only works for components. In order to see a change to a page layout, they need to actually close the ones they have open!
As I roll out the Console experience for a subset of my users, I am trying to understand how the deployment process will work.
Currently, (in classic Sales Cloud) I will make a patch change from time to time without informing all users. Because it doesn't impact workflows, people tend to not notice it.
It seems that in order for me to change a page or layout that a Console user may have open, I must rely on users doing a hard refresh AND to close all their open windows. Is that so? Is there a better way to upgrade a user's experience without requiring them to take action?