I found this post (especially Adam Torman's comment) really helpful in getting to the most elusive element of a profile--which record types are assigned to it for creation: Available Record Type by Profiles
However, when I did a "Retrieve" in Workbench with a package.xml with * on CustomObject and * on Profile, I only got the permissions for recordtypes on Custom Objects, not standard objects like Account and Case (where I really need it). I know this sounds obvious because the metadata element literally says "CustomObject", but when I look at my package.xml I pull down in MavensMate, Account and Case ARE listed in there. And there certainly doesn't seem to be a metadata type for StandardObject.
Does anybody know how to pull this down in a similar way? We have thousands of record types and hundreds of profiles (bad I know--this is part of an effort to clean them up). We've written a python script that reads through the XML and compiles it into a nice excel file, but the missing link is all of the record type profile permissions on standard objects, which are of course the most important.