It seems not, I've had a look through the Apex supporting classes for XML for a similar feature to that of the JSON classes, but I cannot see one either. So from my prespective the answer to your question is a no.
That said, though I would not recommend it, as from a statement governor perspective it could get quite expensive. The nearest thing might be using XmlStreamReader and XmlStreamWriter together, and inject the required white space and padding during the read loop, then call getXmlString on the writer to get the XML.
If your asking from a debug perspective, then this site might be help, http://xmlprettyprint.com/