Developer edition is generated from a DOT (Default Organizational Template) that has a set of data populated for common objects. For example, I have the following and more in my accounts list as soon as the org is enabled:
Burlington Textiles Corp of America
Grand Hotels and Resorts of America
Plus I have associated contacts, opportunities and cases.
If you don't have these it implies you are in a developer or configuration sandbox, which contains a copy of your production configuration, but no data.
You can create a set of default data to load into a sandbox (or other edition) - I've found its best to define external ids for parent records so that I don't have to upload accounts, then retrieve them and fix up the id on each contact, opportunity and case.